目前许多城市暴雨洪涝灾害综合风险区划对暴雨在复杂地形下可能引发的山洪与地质灾害造成的高风险以及对城市交通安全风险估计不足，同时常规的气象观测资料已难以描述暴雨致灾危险性精细化分布。本文基于自然灾害风险评估理论，利用遴选的293个北京气象自动站2006—2017年逐时降水观测资料、北京2015年1〖DK〗∶25万基础地理信息、2016年Landsat8晴空遥感影像、灾情资料以及网格化的社会经济资料，在承灾体暴露度基础上充分考虑了承灾体对暴雨引发的城市积涝、山洪与地质灾害灾损敏感性差异，从暴雨致灾危险性、孕灾环境敏感性、承灾体易损性3个方面开展了北京地区暴雨灾害1 km分辨率的精细网格化风险评估与区划，并结合实际案例进行了分析。结果显示：①基于高密度降水观测资料提取的网格化短历时暴雨频次和暴雨量能较为精细地评估致灾危险性；基于遥感与GIS提取的不透水盖度、地形起伏度与河网密度可有效评估暴雨洪涝孕灾环境敏感性；基于1 km格网化的GDP、人口密度和路网密度以及灾损敏感系数可有效评估暴雨引发的积涝、山洪与地质灾害对人员、财产和公路交通的易损性；②与已有成果比较，本次北京暴雨洪涝风险区划不但凸显了暴雨对城市的积涝风险，也凸显了暴雨引发的山洪与地质灾害风险，同时突出了暴雨对城市交通设施安全的影响；③风险区划结果基本反映了北京市暴雨灾害的潜在风险，北京暴雨洪涝灾害防御的重点区域应放在风险较高的三个区域。
The existing comprehensive risk assessments of storms and floods in many cities in China often underestimate the risks caused by torrential rains and geological disasters induced by heavy rains in complex terrain area and insufficient estimates of urban traffic safety risks. At the same time, due to the influence of terrain and urban heat islands, the geographical spatial characteristics of heavy rains are obvious. It is difficult to describe the spatial distribution of storm hazard risks by the conventional meteorological observation data. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk assessment, this paper uses the yeartoyear precipitation observation data of 293 meteorological automatic stations in Beijing from 2006 to 2017, the 1〖DK〗∶25×104 basic geographic information in 2015, the Landsat8 clearsky remote sensing images in 2016, disaster data, as well as other socioeconomic aids. The shortduration rainstorm frequency and rainstorm process rainfall indicators are used to assess the risk of rainstorm disasters. Based on the topography and river network factors, the impervious coverage index is introduced to reflect the environmental sensitivity of the disasterstricken environment. Based on the exposure of the hazardbearing body, the study fully considers the sensitivity difference of the disasterstricken body to the urban floods, mountain torrents and geological disasters caused by heavy rainfall. From the respects of the risk of rainstorm disasters, the sensitivity of the environment to the disasters, and the vulnerability of the disaster victims, a fine comprehensive risk zoning with a resolution of 1 km is carried out for the heavy rain disasters in Beijing, and the actual case was analyzed. The results show that: (1) The gridded shortduration rainstorm frequency and the heavy rain amount based on the highdensity precipitation observation data can be used to evaluate the hazard risk more accurately; the impervious cover, terrain relief and river network density based on remote sensing and GIS extraction can be used to effectively assess the environmental sensitivity of storm floods and floods; based on 1km grid GDP, population density, road network density and damage sensitivity coefficient can be used to effectively assess the vulnerability of the rainstorminduced waterlogging, mountain torrents and geological disasters on people, property and road traffic. (2) Compared with the existing results, the Beijing torrential rain flood risk zoning highlights the waterlogging of heavy rains on the city, the risk of flash floods and geological disasters caused by heavy rains, and the impact of heavy rains on the safety of urban transport facilities. (3) The results of risk zoning basically reflect the potential risks of heavy rain disasters in Beijing. The key areas of storm flooding disaster prevention in Beijing should be placed in three areas with high risk.