Aiming at enriching the technical means and improving the accuracy of meteorological detection, a new design of a meteorological detection system based on the highaltitude and highspeed UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is proposed. The composition, interface and control logic of the system are designed and optimized, in order to realize the highaltitude and longdistance meteorological detection. A spiral structure which greatly increases the number of meteorological task loads is firstly applied, makes a single meteorological payload be able to contain 24 radiosondes. As a typical application of civilmilitary integration, the engineering products of the meteorological detection system have finished the functional, mechanics and environment tests. The test results show that the system is safe and effective, and the requirements of meteorological detection tasks are satisfied. The interface design of the meteorological detection system follows the principles of generalization and standardization, which is easy to be extended to other existing UAV platforms and has broad application prospects.