Founded in 1973, Meteorological Science and Technology(Bimonthly, ISSN:1671—6345, CN 11—2374/P)is governed by China Meteorological Administration, and jointly sponsored by CMA Meteorological Observation Centre, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing Meteorological Service, National Satellite Meteorological Center and National Meteorological Information Centre. As a comprehensive technical journal with engineering features, Meteorological Science and Technology aims to provide a platform for the exchange of knowledge, technology, and experience for scientific and technical personnel. The journal mainly publishes research articles that reflect new theories, methods, and technologies in atmospheric science and related sciences. Main columns include Atmospheric Sounding and Information Technology; Weather & Climate and Numerical Forecasting; Applied Meteorology and Scientific Experiments, and Practical Techniques.

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    2024,52(2):151-162, DOI:
    Abstract:
    As the effective supplements to L band radiosonde, both the Doppler wind lidar and wind profiling radar can provide atmospheric wind field information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, due to the obvious differences between Doppler wind lidar and wind profiling radar in terms of working principles and applicable conditions, the two wind measuring instruments have their own advantages and disadvantages in detection performance, and the detection data of a single instrument can no longer satisfy the requirements of refined forecasting. In this study, L band radiosonde data from the Nanjiao observation site in Beijing from January to May 2020 are used to evaluate the observational data quality of the Doppler wind lidar and wind profiling radar at the same site. The results show that the Doppler wind lidar has a high consistency with the L band radiosonde. The correlation coefficients of U and V components of Doppler wind lidar and L band radiosonde are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, and the root mean square errors of U and V components of Doppler wind lidar and L band radiosonde are 1.1 and 0.95 m·s-1, respectively. However, when the detection height is above 2 km, the data acquisition rate of Doppler wind lidar is low and the deviation is large. Compared to Doppler wind lidar, the consistency between the wind profiling radar and L band radiosonde is slightly worse. The correlation coefficients of U and V components between the wind profiling radar and L band radiosonde are 0.94 and 0.93, respectively, and the root mean square errors of U and V components between the wind profiling radar and L band radiosonde are 2.94 and 2.91 m·s-1, respectively. Compared to Doppler wind lidar, wind profiling radar has a longer detection range but a lower temporal resolution, in addition to a larger measurement bias below 0.5 km and above 6 km. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the doppler wind lidar and wind profiling radar at different detection heights, the horizontal wind measurements from the two wind measuring instruments are first spliced and fused, and then the segmented surface fitting method is used to correct the outliers and compensate for the missing values of the fused wind profiles. Two cases are selected to validate and analyse the effect of fusion. The results show that the consistency between the wind direction and wind speed of the fused wind profile and the L band radiosonde is significantly improved compared to the measurements of the individual devices before the fusion process.
    2024,52(2):163-172, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The ground based microwave radiometer is employing passive remote sensing techniques to achieve real time retrieval of atmospheric temperature, humidity profiles and related parameters. It possesses advantages of high spatiotemporal resolution, unmanned operation, and continuous functionality, gradually emerging as a potent supplementary method for remote sensing of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water profiles both domestically and internationally. However, the inversion methods of microwave radiometer data rely on local historical radiosonde data and are restricted by factors such as the distribution of radiosonde stations. Consequently, its utilisation in areas lacking radiosonde stations is limited. To investigate the application effectiveness of ERA5 reanalysis data in microwave radiometer data retrieval, two neural networks are trained separately using radiosonde and ERA5 data as training samples. These networks are used to invert the microwave radiometer observation data. Subsequently, utilising radiosonde data as a reference, the correlation coefficient, absolute deviation, and root mean square error of the data inverted based on radiosonde and ERA5 reanalysis data are computed to assess the application effectiveness of ERA5 reanalysis data in microwave radiometer data retrieval. The results are indicating that the temperature profile inversions based on ERA5 and radiosonde data are exhibiting correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.99, with absolute deviations of 2.402 ℃ and 2.607 ℃, respectively. The water vapour density inversions are showing correlation coefficients of 0.975 and 0.979, with absolute deviations of 0.412 g/m3 and 0.369 g/m3. The relative humidity inversions are exhibiting correlation coefficients of 0.663 and 0.696, with absolute deviations of 15.587% and 13.976%. Furthermore, the integrated water vapour total inversions are presenting correlation coefficients of 0.959 and 0.968, with absolute deviations of 0.258 cm and 0.227 cm. Comparison of the microwave radiometer inversions based on radiosonde and reanalysis data is revealing closely aligned temperature profiles and integrated water vapour statistics; however, noticeable overestimations are observed in relative humidity. Analysis of error distribution with altitude is indicating relatively minor changes in root mean square errors for both radiosonde and ERA5 data. Temperature and humidity profile errors from both radiosonde and ERA5 retrievaled are performing better at lower altitudes, gradually increasing with altitude. The temperature profile error derived from radiosonde retrievals is notably smaller compared to ERA5 based inversions, exhibiting a distinct difference in the variation of relative humidity errors with altitude. This study is currently focusing solely on the application effectiveness of ERA5 data near the Changchun radiosonde station. To comprehensively validate the utility of ERA5 in microwave radiometer data retrieval, further research is essential in other radiosonde stations, including regions devoid of radiosonde data. Future research is necessary to investigate the application and correction methodologies of ERA5 data in microwave radiometer data retrieval in these areas.
    2024,52(2):173-185, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The Qingpu CINRAD/SAD radar and the Nanhui WSR 88D radar, located in Shanghai, are of different models, and different dual polarisation technology upgrade schemes are adopted, so there is a certain data deviation between the two radars in actual business operation. In order to quantitatively evaluate the detection performance of the radars, analyse the main sources of differences in radar data, and improve the application of the data of the two radars in business forecasting, algorithm research and other aspects, a total of 3933 times of data in 30 processes are selected in the common detection area from July to September 2022 and June 2023. The data set includes typical weather processes such as hail, typhoons, and plum rains. The data are divided into stable precipitation and convective precipitation, and are compared according to intensity classification. We mainly use the data space matching method based on radars at different positions, the horizontal structure of reflectivity (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), correlation coefficient (CC) and differential phase shift (ΦDP) and their variation trend with azimuth, the variation trend of radar sensitivity with elevation and the quantitative statistics of ZH and ZDR deviation for evaluation. The results show that the ZH observations of the two radars are close to each other. The ZDR, CC and ΦDP of the Qingpu CINRAD/SAD radar are more affected by the ground features and lightning rods, and are unstable with the change of azimuth, meanwhile, the non meteorological echo filtering effect of the Qingpu CINRAD/SAD radar is worse than that of the Nanhui WSR 88D radar in the lower layers. The Nanhui 88D radar utilises azimuth super resolution technology to obtain a more refined echo structure. The Nanhui 88D radar only installs a lightning rod on the top of the radome, which is basically not affected by the lightning rod. The radar parameters are more stable as the azimuth changes. The deviation of ZH and ZDR of the two radars is larger in the area where the ZH is greater than 40 dBz. For stable precipitation of 15-25 dBz, the deviations of the ZH and ZDR of the two radars are small. Through calculation, the average deviation of ZH is 0.9 dB and ZDR is -0.14 dB. Based on the data of typhoon, hail, short duration heavy precipitation and Meiyu precipitation, we quantitatively evaluate the differences between the two S band dual polarisation weather radars in Shanghai from different aspects, providing a reference for subsequent algorithm improvements and data correction.
    2024,52(2):186-194, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The China Meteorological Administration Satellite Broadcasting System (CMACast) is one of the three major meteorological data satellite broadcast systems of GEONETCast, responsible for disseminating meteorological data in the Asia Pacific region under the framework of WIS (WMO Information System) and IGDDS (Integrated Satellite Data Dissemination System). Different types of meteorological data are being broadcasted in different channels of CMACast, and channel multiplex the total bandwidth of the system based on parameters such as channel guarantee bandwidth, maximum bandwidth and priority. The data dissemination efficiency of different channels depends on the channel bandwidth allocated by the system. The larger the allocated bandwidth, the higher the data dissemination timeliness. When the amount of data broadcast in the broadcasting system is small, the system bandwidth is sufficient, and the bandwidth obtained by all channels is sufficient to meet the requirements of channel data broadcast timeliness. With the development of meteorological services, the data volume of the broadcasting system has increased from 180 GB/day to 460 GB/day. In the case of limited broadcasting bandwidth resources and varying types and sizes of broadcasting data, the accuracy of channel bandwidth parameters is having an increasing impact on the timeliness of data broadcasting. However, system managers are finding it increasingly difficult to adjust the broadcasting channel parameters to the optimal state through experience to maintain the broadcasting efficiency and timeliness of the broadcasting data. This is causing a serious decrease in the timeliness of data dissemination in some channels, which cannot meet the business timeliness requirements. By quantitatively analysing the transmission characteristics of different meteorological data, refined data transmission samples of various types of data are obtained, and the transmission characteristics of each channel data in the time domain are obtained. Based on this, scientific and quantitative calculations are being carried out for various data broadcast channel parameters according to the time requirements of each channel. Through simulation and iterative optimisation, the optimised parameters such as guaranteed bandwidth and maximum bandwidth of each channel are obtained, which are applied to business systems. This significantly improves the broadcasting efficiency of key data, optimises the overall broadcasting efficiency of the system, and solves the problem of low system broadcasting efficiency and insufficient timeliness caused by inaccurate setting of various channel parameters in the broadcast system. Through the research, a quantitative and accurate calculation and optimisation method is provided for the setting and optimisation of channel parameters in broadcast systems, solving the problem of inaccurate and difficult optimisation of channel parameters in broadcast systems using manual settings. The application is showing significant good results in practical broadcasting services.
    2024,52(2):195-204, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The current service recipients of the Xinjiang Meteorological Big Data Cloud Platform are mostly based on numerical forecasting models and multi source fusion analysis of meteorological intranet business systems. The integration with the mobile internet is not high, and most of the frontline observation data are directly extracted and processed without being visually displayed through media. The basic stations also lack the means to access the operational status of automatic stations and local refined forecasting and warning on mobile devices. Therefore, to enhance the quality of meteorological services and meet the mobile visualisation needs for meteorological disaster prevention and reduction, as well as to improve the monitoring and warning capabilities of small and medium scale weather disasters at the basic level in Xinjiang, there is urgency to develop a professional meteorological service APP. The Tian Shan Weather APP breaks through the heterogeneous barriers between the Xinjiang meteorological intranet and the mobile internet at the network level, fully utilises the existing digital achievements of meteorological business in the “cloud + end” business model. It processes and displays meteorological data such as ground observations from automatic weather stations, grid based actual conditions, radar echoes, and disaster warnings. The key technologies are as follows: using multi source data processing and storage technology to process and reprocess raw data and standardised storage products; using service interfaces that inherit the technical characteristics of the large scale data cloud platform and achieve millisecond level data calls; using the SSM development framework based on inversion of control to separate APP transaction management from main business logic; using a data interaction mode based on the Restful architecture style for cross platform development. At present, the Tian Shan Weather APP can provide real time weather conditions, refined forecasts, warning details, and radar mosaics based on the user’s location in Xinjiang according to the user’s needs. It can also customise the calculation and analysis products of ground actual condition elements and statistical value elements for meteorological research purposes. Through simulated testing of the data cloud platform service interface and the original CIMISS system interface, it is found that under 100 concurrent accesses, the data cloud platform interface is 5.7 times faster than the original CIMISS interface, and under 200 concurrent accesses, it is 5.3 times faster. This shows that the APP inherits the high carrying capacity of the data cloud platform service interface. The APP is being widely promoted and used by meteorological departments at the provincial, municipal, and county levels, as well as in related industries such as civil aviation and the air force in Xinjiang. It has been widely recognized and has achieved significant results in the emergency support of weather automatic stations and meteorological disaster prevention and reduction services throughout Xinjiang.
    2024,52(2):205-217, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In order to gain a deep understanding of the spread characteristics of two wildfires that occur simultaneously, as well as the impact of atmosphere, terrain, and other factors on different wildfire behaviours, and to provide scientific support for extinguishing multiple wildfires. Two wildfires that occurred in Fuling on August 17, 2022 are selected to analyse and study the behaviour of the two wildfires using high resolution geographic information, vegetation data, and meteorological observations. At the same time, numerical simulation is conducted using the wildfire atmosphere coupled WRF Fire model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Fire Module). The research results are found as follows. (1) Under the control of deep and high pressure, the two wildfires break out under the background of continuous high temperature and dryness. Ten days before the wildfire, the daily average temperature is 5.2-8.8 ℃ higher than the same period as usual, the daily maximum temperature is 6.2-8.4 ℃ higher than the same period as usual, and the daily average relative humidity is 26.3% lower than the same period as usual. The drought meteorological level reaches severe drought, and the fire risk meteorological level is high or extremely high. (2) The test results show that the simulated wind direction and wind speed changes of the model are relatively consistent with the actual situation, basically reflecting the sudden changes in wind direction and wind speed of the fire site, indicating that the WRF Fire can accurately reproduce the spread of multiple real fire sites at the same time. (3) The analysis of temporal and spatial changes in wildfires spread characteristics indicates that the wildfire development in Daliangshan can be divided into 6 stages during this simulation phase, and the wildfire in Beishanping can be divided into 4 stages. The main reason for the difference in the spread and development of the two fires with a linear distance of 4.4 km is the difference in local wind fields caused by differences in terrain. There is a southwest northeast trumpet shaped terrain on the south side of the Daliangshan fire site. After passing through this terrain, southerly winds form a significant convergence on the northeast side. Therefore, during the northward spread and development of the fire site, the fire on the east side is greater than that on the west side. The terrain on the west side of the Beishanping fire site is higher than that on the east side. As the southerly wind advances northward, it forms convergence in front of the mountain. Therefore, during some periods, the fire is stronger on the west side of the fire site in front of the mountain.
    2024,52(2):218-227, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The Method for Object Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) has been widely applied in spatial evaluation in recent years. MODE is affected by many parameters such as precipitation critical value, convolution radius and attribute weight; the application effect of MODE depends on reasonable selection of convolution radius and accurate characterisation of spatial similarity between forecast and observation fields. Taking the CMPA as observation, MODE and FSS (Fractions Skill Score) are used to test the CMA GD 24 h daily precipitation forecast based on 54 precipitation cases in Guizhou in this paper. The number of objects extracted by MODE falls with convolution radius; too small convolution radius easily results in too many precipitation objects extracted; if the convolution radius is too large, local precipitation information will be lost and precipitation objects cannot be extracted from the precipitation field. Therefore, an appropriate convolution radius should be adopted to extract precipitation objects with MODE. It is found that the MMI (the Median Maximum Interest Value) of MODE is very sensitive to the convolution radius change and even has a mutation, so it cannot stably represent the overall spatial similarity of precipitation fields. Based on the MMI, the area weight is introduced to construct the AMMI (the Area Mean of Maximum Interest Value) to distinguish the contribution of different objects. The AMMI is more reasonable to characterise the overall similarity of the forecast and observation precipitation fields, and is unaffected by the number of precipitation objects, which is more stable than the MMI. In general, AMMI is larger than FSS, and the difference in the change of AMMI and FSS with spatial scale is due to the different calculation basis. According to the change of object’s total area with the convolution radius, precipitation can be divided into large area precipitation and local precipitation. The average total area of large scale precipitation grows with the convolution radius, while AMMI has little change. As the convolution radius goes up, the average total area and AMMI of local precipitation go down. Taking the maximum convolution radius which makes the total area change not exceeding 10% in the observation field as the critical radius, there is a large difference between the probability of the critical radius of large scale precipitation and local precipitation from 0.05° to 0.4°. Local precipitation is sensitive to the selection of convolution radius and determining the convolution radius with critical radius is helpful to retain most of the information of the precipitation field.
    2024,52(2):228-242, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Using the percentile method, the regional freezing process intensity is divided into four levels: extremely strong, strong, general strong, and general. Based on the daily observation data from 84 stations in Guizhou Province and reanalysis data, the cooling amplitude, number of affected stations, duration, altitude field, wind field, and temperature field are being analysed in a comparative way on 12 regional freezing Processes which are selected from four different intensities. The conclusions are as follows. The common features of the four freezing events with different intensities are: in the height field at 500 hPa, a distribution of “positive negative” anomalies or a cut off low is being exhibited over the East Asia region in the middle and high latitudes, with meridional circulation dominating from Lake Baikal to northern China; in the wind field at 850 hPa, the southern part of Yunnan Province is being controlled by southerly and southwestern winds, and there is a southwestern or westerly jet stream from Jiangnan to southern China. For the regional freezing rain events with strong intensity, a “two trough and one ridge” or “one trough and one ridge” distribution in the height field at 500 hPa is shown over the middle and high latitude regions. In the wind field at 850 hPa, there is a pattern of warm air advection aloft and cold air advection near the surface, with north easterly winds return at 850 hPa and a southwestern jet stream at 700 hPa, while a stable low level shear line is formed at 850 hPa. In the temperature field, a sandwich structure of cold warm cold is observed, with the 0 ℃ isotherm below 900 hPa in the near surface layer. However, for the regional freezing rain events with moderate intensity, multiple troughs and ridges are distributed at 500 hPa. There are no common features for the north easterly winds advection and low level shear line in the wind field, as well as the cold warm cold sandwich structure and the position of the near surface 0 ℃ isotherm in the temperature field. On the temperature profile, the period with the lowest position of the near surface 0 ℃ isotherm or the occurrence of the cold warm cold sandwich structure corresponds to the time when the freezing rain events have the extensive impact and result in the most severe disaster. In the prediction of the freezing process, predict experiments can be conducted based on the position of the 0 ℃ line near the ground level and the strength of the temperature inversion layer.
    2024,52(2):243-251, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Based on the hourly 2 m temperature and precipitation data of 104 stations in the Sichuan Basin in August 2022 and the historical data of the same period from 1971 to 2021, and the 2 m temperature forecast data of the EC, CMA GFS, and CMA MESO models, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and mode prediction deviation of this extreme heat weather process are analysed by statistical correlation method. The results show that: (1) In August 2022, the extreme heat weather process in the Sichuan Basin has a wide range, strong intensity, and long duration. There are 87.5% of stations in the basin that have broken the extreme value in the same period, and the peak period of the high temperature is obviously delayed compared with the same period in history. (2) The distribution of the maximum temperature in August 2022 is higher in the east and lower in the west, and the distribution of the difference between the maximum temperature and the extreme value in the same period is opposite, in which the maximum temperature decreases with the increase of the altitude of the station, while the extreme value difference first increases and then decreases with the altitude of the station. In addition, affected by the heat island effect, the stations with large extreme difference are mainly concentrated near the Longquan Mountain range. (3) During the high temperature period, the average temperature of the maximum and minimum are high, and the anomaly is large. In addition, the cumulative precipitation and rainy days are also far lower than the historical period. (4) In comparison, the prediction advantage of the EC model is mainly in the low elevation area of the basin, while the average absolute error of the CMA MESO model is smaller in the steep terrain area around the basin. In addition, the EC model predicts the peak temperature time closer to the reality, while the CMA MESO model predicts the number of hot days closer to the reality.
    2024,52(2):252-264, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Based on the data of CFL 03 atmospheric boundary layer wind profiler radar and the automatic weather observation data of Guiyang Airport from January 2019 to June 2022, this paper verifies the availability of WPR data and analyses horizontal wind field, vertical wind speed, echo intensity, atmospheric refractive index structure constant and other physical quantities in detail according to the typical snowfall and freezing rain process; at the same time, the differences of WPR data between different intensity snowfalls and freezing rains are compared. Finally, the WPR data of snowfall and freezing rain in recent three years are statistically analysed. The results show that: (1) The horizontal wind field of WPR reflects that the thickness and intensity of cold air during snowfall exceed that freezing rain, the middle and lower layers are controlled by cold advection during snowfall, while they are warm advection during freezing rain. (2) The greater the central value of C2n, the higher the upward development height of the large value area, and the stronger the snowfall intensity; and the increase/decrease of high level C2n is ahead of the increase/decrease of snowfall, which can reflect the intensity change of snowfall. (3) The radar reflectivity of snowfall leans to the left in the vertical direction, so the change of radar reflectivity in high level layers is an indicative of the change of snowfall intensity, the radar reflectivity of freezing rain presents a “strong weak strong” distribution in the vertical direction, which is consistent with the “cold warm cold” stratification distribution of temperature field in the vertical direction. (4) In freezing rain, the falling speed of particles is slower than that of snowfall, and the precipitation particles almost only fall in the cold air area below 1500 m with the speed of 0.2 to 1.0 m/s; while in sleet, the falling speed is faster than that of pure snow, and the falling speed of light snow is the slowest.
    2024,52(2):265-276, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In recent years, the problem of urban waterlogging is becoming increasingly serious, and urban waterlogging risk assessment is becoming one of the hotspots and challenges in urban waterlogging disaster research. This article takes the main urban area of Chengdu as an example. Meteorological data, geographic information data, socio economic statistical data, and waterlogging disaster information are used. The optimal function for estimating precipitation during the return period is selected by comparing multiple commonly used distribution functions. The hourly rainfall pattern in the study area is calculated with the Pilgrim & Cordery method. Then, an improved FloodArea waterlogging model is developed to simulate waterlogging scenarios with a 24 hour rainfall period of 20, 30, 50, and 100 years. Based on the revised risk level standards for waterlogging highways and the revised loss curves for property, the levels of waterlogging traffic risk and the risk of indoor property loss for residents are discussed under the 100 year return period precipitation scenario. The results show that: (1) The GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) distribution function is the optimal function for estimating precipitation at the return period in the main urban area of Chengdu. The 24 hour hourly rainfall pattern in the main urban area of Chengdu presents a bimodal pattern, and the peak appears at the front of the precipitation process. (2) Based on the FloodArea model, the spatial distribution of urban waterlogging can be well simulated by improving the input data or parameters. The simulation results of various precipitation scenarios show that the proportion of waterlogging inundation areas in Gaoxin South Zone, Gaoxin West Zone, and Qingyang District is higher than in other areas. (3) The 24 hour 100 year rainfall scenario of waterlogging can cause 86.1% of the road length in the main urban area of Chengdu to be difficult to travel. Among them, the length of first level risk roads accounts for 10.5%, and the length of second and third level risk roads accounts for 27.5% and 28.4% respectively, with the highest risk of waterlogging roads in Chenghua District. (4) The potential loss of indoor property caused by waterlogging during a 24 hour 100 year rainfall scenario accounts for approximately 0.8% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the main urban area. Wuhou District has the highest risk of property loss, with potential losses accounting for 1.6% of its GDP. The evaluation results can provide support for the prevention and reduction of waterlogging disasters in Chengdu, and the established methods can provide technical reference for urban waterlogging risk assessment.
    2024,52(2):277-287, DOI:
    Abstract:
    By using the electric rainproof shed at Gucheng Station in Hebei Province, which is located in the little rainfall and arid regions of the main winter wheat production region of North China, natural precipitation is covered and irrigation is artificially controlled to form soil waterlogging, high humidity, drought, and control. The grain filling process, above ground biomass, and yield components of winter wheat are measured after flowering. The stress effects of soil waterlogging on the grain filling rate and yield of winter wheat are analysed without the influence of rain and low temperature stress. The results show that the grain filling rate of winter wheat decreases and the duration of grain filling days shortens with the decrease of soil water; drought and waterlogging stress affect the dry matter distribution among organs and the source sink matching relationship of grain filling in winter wheat. With the decrease of soil water content, the dry matter distribution in the ear decreases, and the stem and leaf weight increases, that is, the biological yield (straw) increases, and the economic yield (grain) decreases. Under the condition of sufficient soil water, the photosynthetic efficiency of green organs such as leaves is high, the transport of photosynthetic products is dominant, and the dry matter of pre anthesis vegetative organs has a small contribution rate to the formation and transport of grains; drought stress significantly weakens the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, reduces photosynthetic products and reduces dry matter transport, but the contribution rate of dry matter storage in pre anthesis vegetative organs increases. Drought stress affects photosynthesis, grain filling, dry matter accumulation, transport, and distribution of winter wheat plants; during the grain filling period, high soil moisture has a yield increasing effect, with a theoretical yield increase of 5.87%. Soil waterlogging shows a decrease in yield, with a theoretical yield decrease of 1.50%; the harvest indices of high humidity and waterlogging are slightly higher than the control 0.5226. Under drought stress, the harvest index significantly decreases, with moderate drought and severe drought being which is 0.1130 to 0.1633 lower than the control. The results show that irrigation in the northern arid region can relieve the stress of climate drought on crop water demand, and when the good weather is full of sunshine, and the daily temperature range is large, the warm and hot conditions are more suitable, and the crop yield and quality are improved. Soil moisture is the key limiting factor affecting the potential of light and temperature production and the increase of yield per unit area of winter wheat in the northern region. The results of this study have certain reference significance for coping with the impact of extreme precipitation events caused by climate change on agricultural production, especially for scientific assessment of the impact of drought and flood disasters on crops in northern arid regions.
    2024,52(2):288-296, DOI:
    Abstract:
    High temperature heat damage is one of the main meteorological disasters in the Yangtze River Basin, and scientific assessment of heat damage risk is the basis for disaster prevention and reduction. This study is utilising meteorological observation data from the past 60 years to analyse the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of high temperature heat damage in Hubei. Based on the basic theory of natural disaster risk, a high temperature heat damage risk assessment model is established, which includes factors such as the heat damage intensity that affects the critical period of rice seed setting rate, the actual exposure of the disaster bearing body during the disaster occurrence, and the vulnerability of the disaster. Risk analysis and zoning are conducted. The results show that the period with a high probability of high temperature weather occurrence is late July, with the 6th pentad in July being the highest. From the perspective of the high temperature heat damage risk index, the heat damage risk of rice heading and flowering in the third pentad of July is the highest, and thereafter, the heat damage risk decreases over time. The current heading and flowering period of one season mid season rice in Hubei is at a high risk period, and delaying it for 5 days can reduce its heat damage risk index by about 20%; delaying for more than 15 days reduces the heat hazard risk index by more than 50%. The southeastern and northwestern regions of Hubei are high risk areas for high temperature heat damage. For the southeastern region of Hubei, it is recommended to postpone the sowing period by about 15 days or choose more heat resistant varietals to reduce the impact of high temperature heat damage. Heat resistant varieties should be selected in the northwest of Hubei to reduce the risk of high temperature and heat damage, and it is not advisable to postpone the sowing date to avoid the impact of autumn rain in western China on the rice harvest period. Due to the inferior water resource conditions compared to the Jianghan Plain in northern Hubei, and the frequent occurrence of high temperatures accompanied by drought, it is recommended to choose heat resistant varieties and moderately control the rice planting area in the northern Hubei rice region. Regenerated rice should try to choose some heat resistant varieties and strengthen farmland management to cope with high temperature and heat damage.
    2024,52(2):297-308, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Liaoning Province is a major province for blueberry cultivation. Research on suitable areas for blueberries can provide a certain theoretical basis for the development planning of the blueberry industry, strengthening the utilisation of local agricultural climate resources, improving the yield and quality of blueberries, and increasing economic benefits. In this study, the northern high bush blueberry is the main research object. Based on its biological characteristics and environmental requirements, an evaluation index system for potential suitable areas for blueberries in Liaoning Province is being established, which includes 11 indicators from three aspects: terrain, soil and climate. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Geographic Information System spatial analysis technology and systematic cluster analysis are used to study the potential suitability of blueberry regionalising in Liaoning Province. The results are as follows: (1) The suitable planting areas for blueberries based on terrain, soil and climate account for 81.68%, 60.86% and 78.16% of the total area of Liaoning Province, respectively. Soil conditions have an obvious limiting effect on the potential distribution of blueberries, mainly due to the high soil pH and low suitability level of EC value in some areas, which make soil improvement difficult. (2) From the comprehensive regionalising point of view, the suitable area for blueberries in Liaoning Province is about 7.628×104 km2, accounting for 51.54% of the total area of Liaoning Province, which is primarily distributed in the Liaodong Peninsula, the Liaohe Plain and the western coastal area of the Liaodong Bay, among which the most suitable area is primarily distributed in the middle of Liaohe Plain, the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula and a few coastal areas in the western part of the Liaodong Bay. It should be noted that as the main grain producing area, Liaohe Plain is not recommended for large scale development of the blueberry industry, so it is suggested that the Liaodong Peninsula and western coastal areas of the Liaodong Bay should be the key areas for the development of the blueberry industry in Liaoning Province. (3) The 59 counties (cities) in Liaoning Province are divided into three sub regions with potential suitability and two sub regions with non suitability. The first sub region of potential suitability has apparent planting advantages in terms of natural conditions and the other conditions are more suitable except for slightly lower winter low temperature; the planting conditions for blueberries in Subregion 2 of non suitable areas are the least ideal, and the main restriction factors are high soil pH or low winter temperature, so it is not recommended to develop the blueberry industry. (4) In practical application, the results of comprehensive regionalization and secondary regionalization of suitable areas should be combined to determine the overall suitability of each county (city) district based on secondary regionalization of suitable areas, and then conduct a detailed investigation of each county (city) district based on comprehensive regionalization to analyse and judge the planting advantages and constraints of each region before making scientific decisions. The regionalization results are in good agreement with the existing blueberry growing areas, which can provide a scientific basis for blueberry industry planning in Liaoning Province.
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    2020,48(6):917-922, DOI:
    [Abstract] (759) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (34246)
    Abstract:
    Using the meteorological observation data of Yuepuhu in Xinjiang from 1981 to 2019, combined with the growth and development of Flos Lonicerae, the relationship between the climatic conditions and the growth of Flos Lonicerae in Yuepuhu are analyzed. According to the ecological characteristics of Flos Lonicerae, the meteorological conditions of Flos Lonicerae cultivation in Yuepuhu are systematically analyzed, and the results show that the average temperature of each phenological stage of Flos Lonicerae in Yuepuhu show an obvious increasing trend; the number of sunshine hours has an obvious increasing trend; and the water source is sufficient. These are conducive to the normal growth and development of Flos Lonicerae. As the temperature rises and the number of sunshine hours increases, the planting time has been advanced from the previous mid March to early March; the planting area has expanded year by year, from tens of hectares in 2016 to 345 hm2 in 2019; and the planting mode has been adjusted from the plain cropping to inter cropping method. In the inter planting mode, the varieties are unified with Beihua No.1. The number of consecutive high temperature days of ≥38 ℃ during the growth and development of Flos Lonicerae, especially in ≥40 ℃ high temperature weather, the short term heavy precipitation weather, windy and sandy weather and other meteorological conditions have certain influence on the quality and yield of Flos Lonicerae. Exploration of the favorable climatic conditions for the development of the Flos Lonicerae planting industry in Yuepuhu provides a scientific basis for the construction of the Yuepuhu Flos Lonicerae industrial base, as well as the meteorological guarantee for the increase of income of flower farmers.
    2021,49(1):55-62, DOI:
    [Abstract] (670) [HTML] (0) [PDF 11.58 M] (32895)
    Abstract:
    Clouds are an important part of the earth system, which can affect the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system by affecting atmospheric radiation transmission. At present, the information obtained from three dimensional cloud observation has certain limitations, so it is necessary to obtain more accurate three dimensional cloud information by using multi source observation data merging analysis. Based on the successive correction method, 〖JP2〗the Three Dimensional Cloud Merge Analysis Operation System (3DCloudA V1.0) integrates multi source data such as numerical forecast products, geostationary meteorological satellite observation, meteorological radar observation to produce the real time 0.05°/h three dimensional cloud merging analysis product covering China and its surrounding areas (0°-60°N, 70°-140°E), which is distributed to the national and provincial meteorological departments through the China Telecommunication System. The modular system framework is considered in the operation system design and construction process, and the fault tolerant functions such as EC Flow scheduling process real time monitoring and automatic restarting are developed, which effectively improves the stability and reliability of the operation system. Evaluations show that through merging multi source observation data, the three dimensional cloud merge analysis product can describe cloud the top, inside and bottom information more accurately.〖JP〗
    2014,42(5):823-831, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1485) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.17 M] (30354)
    Abstract:
    In order to improve the weather forecast quality over the low latitude plateau regions, the wind data retrieved with VAD (Velocity Azimuth Display) method are assimilated to the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model by WRF 3DVar (3 Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System). With different assimilation schemes, a torrential rain event occurred in Yunnan Province from 00:00UTC 30 June 2009 to 00:00UTC 1 July 2009 is numerically simulated and comparatively analyzed. The results indicate that the initial wind fields of the WRF model are markedly improved by assimilating the retrieved wind data. The WRF 3DVar can availably introduce the information of the retrieved wind to the initial conditions of the regional numerical model. The assimilation of the retrieved wind data helps enhance the wind convergence and vapor transportation over the rainy area. Furthermore, the assimilation help improve quantitative precipitation forecasts. The quantitative test of the 18 hour rainfall forecast shows that forecasts are more accurate, less pretermissions, and more rational pertinence for over 250 mm precipitation in the assimilation experimentations. The higher the assimilation frequency and the longer the assimilation time is, the more obvious the influence of data assimilation on the initial fields and forecast fields of the regional model is. But long assimilation time may increase the speed of synoptic systems and the overestimate rainfall, and so the suitable selection of frequency and time is crucial in numerical experimentations.
    2013,41(4):758-763, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1907) [HTML] (0) [PDF 26.87 M] (29048)
    Abstract:
    Through investigating the lightning disasters of ancient buildings, the distribution of ancient buildings being stricken by lightning are analyzed. It is found that animal finials and prominent parts of the like, old trees, towers and kiosks, service facilities and other parts of ancient buildings are vulnerable to lightning strikes. It is found that once an ancient building is stricken by lightning, it is probable to be stricken again by lightning. The reasons for that ancient buildings are stricken and caught fire by lightning are analyzed, and the proportions of casualties caused by ancient building lightning disasters are calculated. It is concluded that the reasons for ancient buildings stricken by lightning includes the appropriate location and structure of ancient buildings, tree triggering, internal environment changes, and water infiltration because of disrepair and other factors vulnerable to lightning.
    2017,45(6):1116-1124, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1130) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.65 M] (27499)
    Abstract:
    Data quality assessment is an important part in model operation application. In this paper, the soil moisture observation data and China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) data are used to establish the online CLDAS data quality assessment system through the MySQL database and the Web technology like html, JavaScript, HighChart, etc. The assessment analysis between the simulated soil moisture and the observed soil moisture at any of stations and provinces, times and different soil layers is implemented in the form of correlation coefficient, root mean square error, relative deviation, and mean deviation. Diagrams such as time series and scatter are visually displayed to compare the observation and simulated data in the system. The statistical indexes can be calculated immediately using JavaScript language in the Web platform. The assessment results and the comparison diagrams can be showed through the internet Web page, and the real time monitoring of the model product data quality can be achieved.
    2013,41(1):15-19, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2340) [HTML] (0) [PDF 12.84 M] (23585)
    Abstract:
    Due to the influence of the curve Earth, the fixed detection mode of the CINRAD/SA weather radar uses the minimum elevation angle of 0.5 °, so the blind area is relatively big, and the detection capability for low level precipitation echoes is limited. On the basis of experiments, the calculation formulas of the minimum height applicable when CINRAD/SA detects with positive and negative elevation angles are devised. Then the minimum detecting heights of CINRAD/SA at different distances with different elevation angles (0.5°, 0°, -0.3°,-0.5°) are calculated. Through analyzing characteristics of radar products detected under different elevation angles, some suggestions on CINRAD/SA about using negative elevation angles are presented.
    2010,38(3):289-294, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2622) [HTML] (0) [PDF 63.01 M] (22550)
    Abstract:
    With the intensive observation data and NCEP/NCAR reanalyzed data, an unusual heavy fog process occurred over the east central China from 25 to 27 December in 2006 is analyzed in aspects of the large scale synoptic condition and dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms. It was shown that the fog occurred while the near ground wind velocity varied from 0.3 to 2.9 m/s and the dense fog occurred while the wind velocity varied from 0.3 to 2.4 m/s and the visibility was within 15 meters when velocity was from 0.8 to 1.1 m/s. Although vapor condition was bad and rainfall didn’t occur within a few days before the heavy fog, the continuous vapor transportation of the southwestern air current before a trough offered plentiful vapor for the fog. The results also show that the stable stratification gradually established before the fog.At first, the instable stratification built at higher levels after sunrise, subsequently passed downward to lower levels, and then the inversion layer destroyed and the fog dispersed and cleared off. The results indicate that the visibility changed rapidly and violently before the first stage of the severe heavy fog but it did not before the second stage.
    2010,38(3):281-288, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2189) [HTML] (0) [PDF 57.54 M] (21392)
    Abstract:
    In order to reveal the development mechanisms of heavy snowfall in Hebei Province,two heave snow processes on 14 to 16 March 2003 and 20 to 21 February 2004 are selected. A contrast analysis of their meteorological characteristics is made from aspect of synoptic situation and physical mechanism by means of numerical diagnosis with the NCEP reanalysis data and conventional observation data. The results show that the combination of south and north troughs with identical phase around 110°E at 500 hPa, the allocation of the surface pressure field with high in north and low in south, and the appearance of the ground inverted trough in the Hetao area of NW China, as well as the thermodynamic conditions with warm temperature tongue and warm advection in the lower troposphere, are the favorable large scale background for the formation of heavy snowfall. There are three important paths of water vapor in the two snow events: from southwest in front of the 500 hPa trough, from east at low level, and from low level jet. From the cross sections of vorticity, divergence, vertical velocity and vertical helicity, it is found that the vertical distribution of convergence at low level but divergence at upper level and ascending motion in the whole troposphere benefit the forming and maintaining of heavy snowfall, and the distribution of positive vorticity (vertical helicity) in the whole troposphere is most favorable. It is also suggested the temperature descending to below 0 ℃ at both 850 hPa and 925 hPa, meanwhile below 1 ℃ in the surface, is favorable to snowing. The results can be used as reference in the forecasting heavy snowfall.
    2010,38(4):432-436, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2032) [HTML] (0) [PDF 13.24 M] (16697)
    Abstract:
    A whole province range thunderstorm occurred in Zhejiang Province on 26 June 2009, and the occurrence frequency of cloud to ground lightning in this thunderstorm is the highest since the establishment of the lightning position system in 2006. By means of the observation data from the lightning position system, the intensive rainfall observation system, and Doppler radar, the characteristics of the cloud to ground lightning process are analyzed. The results indicate that lightning strokes were mainly negative; in the lightning echo image, negative strokes were mostly distributed in the area of 25 dBz to 55 dBz, and positive strokes were usually in the area of 25 dBz to 35 dBz; lightning strokes occurred mostly on the side of echo development or advancement, distributed around the area with maximum gradients, and there seldom appeared lightning strokes around a strong echo center; the frequency of cloud to ground lightning was correlated closely with the accumulated precipitation of the whole province during the thunderstorm. The peak value of precipitation lagged more than 0.5 hour behind the peak value of the frequency of cloud to ground lightning, and the accumulated precipitation of the whole province occurred 1 to 2 hours behind the peak value of the frequency of cloud to ground lightning. Therefore, the cloud to ground lightning data can be used as a basis in short range severe precipitation forecasting.
    2009,37(1):67-73, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2541) [HTML] (0) [PDF 788.79 K] (15008)
    Abstract:
    Soil moisture is a key variable in water and energy exchanges in land atmosphere interface. The passive microwave remote sensing is the most potent technology to retrieve soil moisture. A brief introduction is made to microwave theory, and a general review of soil moisture retrieval algorithms is given. Three typical cases are illustrated based on the different microwave sensors by comparing various algorithms, which correspond to the three parameter AMSR based retrieval developed by Njoku and Li, the two parameter SMMR based retrieval developed by Owe et al. and the two parameter SSM/I based retrieval developed by Wen et al. The insufficiency and potentials in the researches on soil moisture are discussed.
    2013,41(3):506-515, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1626) [HTML] (0) [PDF 18.37 M] (13759)
    Abstract:
    By using ADAS (ARPS Data Analysis System) and NCEP GFS data as the background field, an assimilation experiment is conducted on CB\\CC Doppler radar reflectivity in Northwest China, and by means of WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model), a weather process occurred around the Hetao region of Yellow River and Hebei Province is simulated. The contrast between the experiment results using different simulation schemes and the forecasting verification show that: (1) the introducing of the C Band radar reflectivity data is complementary in space with the S Band radar data, and the rainfall field and vertical structure information given by the complex cloud analysis scheme with satellite and surface observation data are closer to reality. (2) The scheme with C Band radar reflectivity assimilated is superior to the unassimilated for the simulation of the reflectivity echoes, but the simulated system is gradually ebbed because of the inadequate water supply, which is different from reality. (3) The contrast between different assimilation schemes with the real precipitation indicates that the assimilated reflectivities improved the short time precipitation forecast.
    2010,38(4):456-462, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2259) [HTML] (0) [PDF 21.77 M] (13428)
    Abstract:
    The variation features of GPS retrieved atmospheric Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) are analyzed, and a comparison is conducted on the radiosonde observations and the retrieved precipitation (PWV) in Yunnan. The results show that PWV can be used to reflect the seasonal characteristics of precipitation, and the values of PWV from lower elevation stations are generally higher than those of higher elevation stations in the same period; the changing trends of PWV and radiosonde observations are basically the same, and the correlation coefficient is approximately 0.89; the variation periods of PWV and precipitation are also identical, with the precipitation starting mostly following the peak after a consecutive increasing of PWV; the large increasing amplitude (or keeping at high level) of PWV can be used as an indicator for forecasting continuous heavy precipitation, but when the peak value of PWV is used as a forecasting indicator, seasonal factors should be considered also.
    2013,41(4):696-702, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1541) [HTML] (0) [PDF 10.65 M] (13196)
    Abstract:
    Two coastal heavy rain events occurred in 4-5 and 21-22 August 2010 were caused by the subtropical high. For several kinds of numerical products that are used widely, verification is conducted mainly from the aspects of circulation situation, influencing systems, and precipitation elements. The results show that these numerical products have certain prediction capability for heavy rainfall quantitatively, but predicted rainfall levels are generally smaller, and the prediction of the strong precipitation center is poor in stability; the position forecasts of EC and T639 models are more accurate, but the intensity forecasts are smaller than the actual situation. There are certain differences between numerical models and the actual situation in the position and intensity of the weather systems producing the heavy rainfall. As for the West Pacific subtropical high, the 72 h forecast of the T639 model is weaker than the actual storm, and the stability of EC model is higher, but there is certain deviation in upper trough and shear line forecasts. In torrential rain forecasting, it is necessary, on the basis of numerical forecast products, to combine strong convective products with such auxiliary tools as intensive observation data, physical fields, similar examples, experienced empirical extrapolation, etc., to improve the forecast accuracy of heavy rain forecasts.
    2016,44(5):816-821, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1392) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.77 M] (12805)
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the problems of safety shot chart mapping, the automatic cartographic algorithm is proposed, which is based on spatial reference, spatial analysis, cartographic expression. According to the location of the station,the accurate space reference coordinate system is adopted. Distance circles and azimuth rays are generated by analysis tools, and the generative process of the safety shot sector zone is derived from the set theory. On account of derivation results,the tools such as SymDiff_analysis, FeatureToPolygon_management, and SelectLayerByLocation_management were integrated to the completed spatial analysis process.The application shows that users just need input the related data,and the drawing process is without human computer interaction, which can guarantee the accuracy of the drawing elements and put an end to the possibility of leakage.
    2013,41(6):1101-1108, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1555) [HTML] (0) [PDF 24.45 M] (12678)
    Abstract:
    The characteristics of Radar echoes during the heavy rainfall event from 9 to 16 July 2010 along the Yangtze River in Anhui are analyzed on the basis of conventional meteorological data and Doppler radar data of Hefe Station. It is concluded that the favorable larger scale circulation,ample water vapor, and stronger ascending movement are the advantageous weather background for the severe rainfall. The results show that the source regions of heavy rainfall along the Yangze River in Anhui are often in the Dabie Mountains. The formation and development of radar echoes during heavy rains are always related with the local strong convergence in wind field (adverse wind regions). Heavy rainfall events are prone to happen when rainbelts are combined along the low level shear line and then strengthened, and when single echoes move in the same direction with the larger scale rainbelt area slowly or quasi stationarily.
    2010,38(1):49-52, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2445) [HTML] (0) [PDF 24.55 M] (12529)
    Abstract:
    A large scale haze process happened on 12 to 13 December 2008 over Jiangxi Province is analyzed comprehensively based on the air pollution index, conventional observation, and radiosonde data. The results show that the joint influence of the southward moving cold air induced by the vertically turning horizontal trough and the dry warm tongue in the middle level layer is the background cause of the haze process. The cold air could not invade the high level layer above 700 hPa rapidly because of the restraining effect of the dry warm tongue, and then there appeared a “temperature inversion” structure, which facilitated the formation and maintenance of the large scale haze process. Affected jointly by the diurnal temperature difference and the cold air, with a relative low humidity, the weather changed frequently between haze and light fogs. A lower height of mixing layer made the pollutants move horizontally and spread along the mountains, and consequently turned the haze area into a east west pattern from a north south pattern.
    2003,31(1):33, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2231) [HTML] (0) [PDF 135.43 K] (12066)
    Abstract:
    The different values of standard temperature year average using the meteorological data in Anhui Province are discussed. The statistical test of these differences of element average is made on the supposition that standard square deviation for whole data is unknown.The current year average based on 1960-1990 data for China meteorological operation is suitable to the statistical analysis.
    2010,38(3):394-398, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2044) [HTML] (0) [PDF 18.61 M] (11742)
    Abstract:
    The characteristics of benefit assessment of major meteorological disaster service are analyzed. The benefit assessment models, indexes, and working flow are constructed, and a comprehensive assessment is conducted in aspects of weather forecast accuracy, forecasting service coverage, feedback from government decision making departments, and overall assessment of service benefits, and so on. The system is based on the Asp.Net platform and B/S (Browser/Server) structure of. Taking the low temperature and snow/freeze disaster of 2008 as an example, an operation application assessment is carried out with the system, which proved a useful tool for evaluating the benefits of major meteorological disaster service.
    2011,39(2):160-164, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2368) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.88 M] (11374)
    Abstract:
    By using the daily precipitation data from 71 stations in Anhui province from 1961 to 2008, the precipitation amount and frequency of annual heavy rainfall are calculated for every station, and then the climatic characteristics of heavy rainfall over Anhui Province are analyzed by such methods as trend analysis, EOF, power spectrum analysis, wavelet analysis, Mann Kendall test, and so on. The results show that the distribution of heavy rainfall from 1971 to 2000, in accordance with the distribution of the frequency, shows a latitudinal pattern; the high amount and frequency of heavy rainfall appeared mostly around the end of June and the beginning of July. The heavy rainfall in most parts of Anhui had an increase trend, with the high value areas in the western Huaibei and the southern Jiangnan regions. The values of first mode of EOF were positive in all the province, with high values in the southwest of Anhui. The second mode of EOF indicates that the distributions of heavy rainfall in the South and North are contrary, greater in the North and less in the south. The third mode of EOF indicates that heavy rainfall was greater in both South and North, and less in the central part. There were periodic variations with the main periods being 9 to 10 years and the secondary period of about 3 years. The heavy rainfall in recent 50 years in Anhui experienced five cycles in the 9 to 10 year time scale. There was a mutation around 1978, and the average rainfall from 1979 to 2008 is 583 mm higher than the average from 1961 to 1978.
    2019,47(5):780-785, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1541) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.37 M] (11334)
    Abstract:
    With the rapid development of the Android system and Internet technology, the smart TV box hardware technology has become one of the most promising industries. The main focus of this paper is the application software designation of smart TV boxes. In order to enrich the means of mobile meteorological information service, smart TV box meteorological service software (weather box) has been widely developed by either using Android, Nginx, Web service or other technical solutions. In this paper, we detailed the newly designed hardware, i.e., system architecture and network topology. Then, we introduce software implementations. By using the newly proposed Load Balancing Strategy and Network Architecture Optimization, our production can dynamically be adaptive to those high concurrent users while maintaining the acceptable security level. Our product also follows the user experiences, which we previously received from our clients, to be convenient the operation process. The product can be potentially valuable as guidance for the relevance software designation towards smart TV boxes.
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    2004,32(4):251, DOI:
    [Abstract] (5388) [HTML] (0) [PDF 423.81 K] (3338)
    Abstract:
    CINRAD/SA, China Next Generation Weather Radar,was produced by the Beijing METSATAR Radar Co., Ltd, based on the NEXRAD WSR-88D technology.Its software system was modified to provide the new RHI/PPI scan mode because NEXRAD WSR-88D provides only the volume scan mode. The design and realization of the RHI/PPI scan mode on the CINRAD/SA are described.
    2008,36(6):760-763, DOI:
    [Abstract] (5214) [HTML] (0) [PDF 464.40 K] (3124)
    Abstract:
    An analysis is made of the annual, seasonal, and monthly variation characteristics of sunshine duration in recent 50 years and its relationship with total cloudiness, trying to detect the variation of sunshine duration in Chengdu by the abrupt climate change theory. The results indicate that in recent 50 years, the sunshine duration decreased with a tendency of 69.41 hours per ten years; the interannual variation amplitude was obviously greater; and the difference between the sunshine durations in 1963 and in 1989 is up to 662.8 hours. There is obvious seasonal difference in sunshine duration, with bigger decreasing amplitude in summer and winter than those in spring and autumn and a tendency of -29.77 and -20.17, -9.91 and -9.56 hours per ten years, respectively. The decreasing tendency is obviously greater in August and less in April. The annual variation of sunshine duration is consistent with sunshine percentage. The sudden change occurred around 1978, with the annual sunshine duration decreased rapidly.
    2008,36(4):474-479, DOI:
    [Abstract] (4320) [HTML] (0) [PDF 650.10 K] (2688)
    Abstract:
    An observational experiment was conducted on the impact of air temperature and humidity variation on soil resistivity and earthing resistance with different structures by selecting three typical soil conditions to set three vari structure lightning protecting earthing bodies in Ningxia for one year. By means of comparative and regression analysis, the impacts of different soil conditions on soil resistivity at different temperatures and humidity in different seasons, and the variation characteristics and regularities of the lightning protecting earthing bodies with different structures are studied, and accordingly the optimal requirements for the layout and structure of lightning protecting earthing bodies are presented.
    2005,33(4):340-344, DOI:
    [Abstract] (3855) [HTML] (0) [PDF 146.22 K] (4570)
    Abstract:
    In order to develop and utilize reasonably climate resources and offer a scientific basis for the sub-area management of livestock production over grasslands, an analysis was made of the Inner Mongolia grassland climate characteristics and effects of climate on the growth of pasture grass, the distribution of domestic animal breeds and the soil environment. It is found that some isolines of climatic moisture are almost superposed with the boundaries of soil, which indicates that the formation of soil zones is closely related to climatic conditions, and climate and soil environment are main influence factors for pasture types and the ecosystem. Based on the climatic moisture, in combination with the distribution characteristics of soil over Inner Mongolia, a regionalization was carried out of grassland ecological types, which is not only rational, but also stable. It is pointed out that the climatic warming and the resulting changes in recent years improved, to some extent, the productivity of the grasslands, but not changed the ecotype in Inner Mongolia.
    2010,38(1):1-8, DOI:
    [Abstract] (3660) [HTML] (0) [PDF 988.69 K] (5944)
    Abstract:
    An introduction of the main reanalysis data of NCEP, ECMWF, JMA and the preliminary comparison among them are given from the following aspects: (1) assimilation systems, including the assimilation module and method; (2) the data used in the reanalysis; and (3) the methods of quality control and bias correction. The main assimilation methods of all reanalysis datasets include the 3D variational method, 4D variational method, and optimum interpolation. The dominating differences of these reanalysis datasets are data types and the resolution of modules. In addition, the advantages and deficiencies of these reanalysis datasets are given by empirical analysis. It is helpful for selecting the correct reanalysis dataset. The advances in reanalysis in China ars introduced simply and some problems on the improvement of the reanalysis in China are discussed.
    2019,47(4):608-621, DOI:
    [Abstract] (3541) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.34 M] (1487)
    Abstract:
    Climate models are a powerful tool for studying the climate system and climate change, and the simulation results of climate models are an important data base for climate projection and risk evaluation of climate change. With the acceleration of global warming, the surface ecological environment, hydrological dynamic cycle and the development of social economy will be affected, which will also affect human safety. To evaluate and predict the future climate change features by using climate models can provide a scientific basis for adjusting human development strategies to adapt to climate change. The paper summarized domestic researches of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) global climate model in climate change, then summed up the application of the CMIP5 climate model in agricultural production, hydrologic dynamic monitoring and others. Finally, the paper points out the insufficiency of the CMIP5 climate model in the projection of climate change and prospects the future of the CMIP5 climate model.

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